History of the Hellenic Nation in Greek. However, when a son was born to the emperor this engagement was broken. Only after three weeks did Reynald give the order to embark; and all the plunder for which there was no room on the ships was sold back to those from whom it had been stolen. Manuel's second marriage was to nicknamed Xene , a daughter of and , in 1161. The two generals were instructed to enlist the support of German emperor Frederick Barbarossa, since he was hostile to the Normans of Sicily and was south of the Alps at the time, but he declined because his demoralised army longed to get back north of the Alps as soon as possible.
The army's siege equipment was quickly destroyed, and Manuel was forced to withdraw — without , the conquest of Iconium was impossible. She was nine years old, her husband ten. The people of Constantinople awarded the emperor a triumph for this triple victory against the Normans of Corfu, the Hungarians and the Serbs of 1149-50. The Hungarian heir Béla was sent to Constantinople to be educated in the court of Manuel, who intended the youth to marry his daughter, Maria, and to make him his heir, thus securing the union of Hungary with the Empire. After 1158, under the new conditions, the aims of the Byzantine policy changed. Byzantium and the Crusader States, 1096-1204, tr.
Having secured his route, John embarked on a new expedition into Syria determined to reduce Antioch to direct imperial rule. The defeat at Myriokephalon has often been depicted as a catastrophe in which the entire Byzantine army was destroyed. Among the nations of the West, the principal sufferer from these developments was Venice. Only gradually was it realized that there had been no word from Constantinople. It was plain from the reports he had received that the imperial army was far too strong to be resisted; his only hope lay in abject submission.
A successful invasion of Egypt would have several further advantages for the Byzantine Empire. Both parties were satisfied in the end upon a reading of the emperor's proposed amendments to the abjuration. He would have been better advised to remain in the East. Ancona 1173 In the campaigns of 1156-1158 the Italian city of Ancona had served as the base from which operations had proceeded, and a large sum of gold was deposited there in later times. Internally, the Byzantine court required a strong leader to hold it together, and after Manuel's death stability was seriously endangered from within. Most of his senior officers favoured its acceptance, pointing out the hazards of a long journey with heavy equipment — for they had brought their siege engines with them - through the mountains in which the Seljuks occupied all the strategic high places. The Balkan frontier 1149-1154 Manuel was kept from his main objective, the subjugation of the Normans of Sicily, due to distraction from troublesome neighbours on the Balkan frontier.
Swathed in a coat which appeared to consist entirely of immense and cavernous pockets, he explained that the air trapped in these pockets would support him as he flew. We see the Second Crusade remembered as late as 1174 in an oration by Eustathius of Thessalonica. However, the younger and more aggressive members of the court urged Manuel to attack. She was born around 1150 and married Theodore Maurozomes before 1170. The Second Crusade was therefore as great a shock as the First, for it showed that the latter was not merely a mercenary expedition gone wrong, but a movement in which western sovereigns were eager to participate, to try and assert their overlordship over the Crusader States.
Conrad in the meantime convalesced in Constantinople throughout the winter of 1147-1148, being treated to a variety of amusements. This monastery, with its three churches, has been described as one of the most important and influential architectural constructions of Middle Byzantine Constantinople. It was the worst mistake of his life. It can be seen that fortunes against the Turks in these last years were mixed, and that the east, as at the outset of the reign, had now become the main theatre of war. The Seljuk sultanate of Rum under Masud had become the ascendant Turkish power in Anatolia. Until that moment the Turks had restricted their activities to minor harassment by small bands of irregulars; now they struck, sweeping down on the army from the mountains to each side and deliberately concentrating their fire on the beasts of burden, whose dead bodies quickly rendered the road impassable. Baldwin did not approve of Raynald's attack on Cyprus, and in any case had already made an agreement with Manuel.
By 1168 nearly the whole of the eastern Adriatic coast lay in Manuel's hands. Yet Manuel's army of 35,000 men was large and unwieldy — according to a letter that Manuel sent to King , the advancing column was ten miles 16 km long. Manuel spared no expense on the army, the navy, diplomacy, ceremonial, palace-building, the Komnenian family, and other seekers of patronage. Access to the collection is restricted to faculty, students, members, and staff of subscribing institutions, and to authorized individuals who have been issued a password. Bulgaria was an autocephalus see and required a prestigious man as archbishop.
It seems to have been plan to carve out a client principality for Manuel from Cilicia, Cyprus and Coele Syria. Browning, The Byzantine Empire London 1980 , p. A new theme, named , was created to the south of Thrakesion. Even if he did not achieve his ambitious goals, his wars against Hungary brought him control of the Dalmatian coast, the rich agricultural region of Sirmium, and the Danube trade route from Hungary to the. He sent a force under the brothers Andronicus and John Contostephanus against the recalcitrant Crusader prince Raymond of Antioch, which consisted of both an army and a navy, the latter commanded by Demetrius Branas. Cahen, Pre-Ottoman Turkey, London, 1968. All this is a testament to the success of the Komnenian Emperors in securing a Pax Byzantina in these heartland territories.